Articles in TynBul 69.1 (May 2018)

Covenant, Typology, and the Story of Joseph
Samuel Emadi (Southern Baptist Theological Seminary)
Critical scholars traditionally assert that the Joseph story (Genesis 37–50) does not develop any of the covenantal themes prominent in Genesis 1–36. By considering Joseph's relationship to the kingship, seed, land, and blessing promises of the Abrahamic covenant, this article concludes that the Joseph story provides a significant development of the Abrahamic covenant. Joseph is an anticipatory fulfilment of the covenant and thus provides literary and redemptive-historical resolution to the Genesis narrative. Joseph also points forward to a more complete fulfilment of the patriarchal hopes expressed in the Abrahamic covenant. These observations provide evidence from within Genesis itself that the author intends Joseph to be read typologically, anticipating God's eschatological work through the Messiah.
Hosea's Marriage Reconsidered
Robin Routledge (Mattersey Hall College)
Whilst there is general agreement that Hosea 1–3 contains prophetic sign-acts, biographical information is sparse, and some argue that it is unwise to try to reconstruct details of Hosea's marriage(s). This article argues from the premise that the historical context of sign-acts, insofar as it may be discerned, is significant for interpretation, and seeks to re-examine proposed historical scenarios and present a partial reconstruction. Issues include the interpretation of ('eshet zenunim), translated 'wife of whoredom', in 1:2, and the identity of the unnamed woman in 3:1. The article concludes that 'eshet zenunim is best understood, proleptically, to relate to Gomer's adultery after her marriage to Hosea, and that 3:1-5 points to the restoration of their earlier relationship. This view best fits the text and the parallel with Israel's spiritual adultery, forgiveness, and restoration by her divine husband.
A Possible Scriptural Precedent for Paul's Teaching on Divorce (and Remarriage?) in 1 Corinthians 7:10-15
Brian Peterson (Lee University)
This paper argues that in the same way Jesus' and the Pharisees' positions on divorce were rooted in the Torah, so, too, Paul, a man steeped in the Hebrew Scriptures, may have been influenced by the Torah when formulating his own teaching on a believer's freedom to remarry when abandoned by an unbelieving spouse. Here it is argued that Paul may have drawn upon the marital life of Moses, who appears to have remarried a Cushite woman after being abandoned by his wife Zipporah due to his Abrahamic faith.
'He Shall Be Called a Nazarene': The Non-Citation of Matthew 2:23
Jared M. August (Baptist Bible Seminary)
Numerous scholars have sought to identify the OT quotation to which Matthew 2:23 alludes. However, when the grammatical details of each of Matthew's fourteen formula-citations are considered, it is apparent that Matthew did not intend to allude to any specific OT passage in 2:23. On the contrary, Matthew simply sought to develop the general OT expectation that the Messiah would come from humble origins, a reality consistent with Jesus' upbringing in Nazareth. This thesis is demonstrated through an analysis and comparison of the fourteen formula-citations in Matthew's Gospel. It is concluded that the formula-citations can be divided into two groups: (1) those which cite an OT passage (1:22; 2:15, 17; 4:14; 8:17; 12:17; 13:14, 35; 21:4; 27:9) and (2) those which develop an OT theme or expectation (2:23; 5:17; 26:54, 56).
Detaching the Census: An Alternative Reading of Luke 2:1-7
David J. Armitage (Leicester)
This paper offers an alternative approach to Luke 2:1-7, assuming for argument's sake that Luke's presumed chronology agreed with modern reconstructions in placing Quirinius' census some years after Herod's death. It is proposed that, on this basis, a coherent reading of the text is feasible in which the reference to Quirinius marks 2:1-5 as a digression, bounded by distinct transition markers, describing events several years after Jesus' birth. This digression, which claims that Joseph and Mary registered in Bethlehem in AD 6, despite having resided in Nazareth for several years, emphasises the family connection to Bethlehem and therefore to David.
Mê ekloumenoi in Galatians 6:9
Aaron Michael Jensen (Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary)
The final phrase of Galatians 6:9, mê ekloumenoi, is today almost universally understood as a conditional participle, placing a strong warning on the end of Paul's encouragement to persist in doing good. This article argues on grammatical, contextual, and historical grounds that the participle would be better understood as having a 'manner' shading and as expressing the ceaseless nature of the eschatological harvest as an exhortation to ceaseless service in the present.
Ethics and Imitatio Christi in 1 John: A Jewish Perspective
Mavis M. Leung (Evangel Seminary, Hong Kong)
This paper focuses on one of the ethical features of 1 John, namely 'the imitation of Christ'. It argues that this ethical feature is related to the believers' identity and vocation as the people of God. Just as in the OT Israel is obliged to reflect God's nature in everyday life, the believers must take on Jesus' character as their character and follow in his footsteps to surrender one's own life for the benefits of others. The result of this paper indicates that the weight of the Jewish ethical thoughts in the formation of Johannine ethics is more important than often acknowledged.
Construct a Fortress Against the Devil: John Chrysostom's Plea to Build Churches in the Countryside
Michael Strickland (Amridge University)
Given Chrysostom's famous concern for the poor, it is perhaps surprising that he made multiple appeals to rich, land-owning Christians to build churches in the countryside. In fact, Chrysostom preferred that the poor be helped by building churches for them rather than giving them gifts directly. However, it is clear that he was less concerned with architecture and aesthetics and more with evangelisation. Chrysostom saw church buildings, with 'full-time' ministers, as a way not only to bless the poor of the countryside, but as a means for Christian instruction. Thus, he appealed to rich Christians by challenging them to build more churches. Rather than building baths, or taverns, or hosting markets, why not build churches to establish an eternal legacy, constructing 'a fortress against the devil, for that is what the church is'?
Dissertation Summaries
Retribution in the Canonical Psalter 
Steffen G. Jenkins (Union School of Theology)
Prayers against enemies have caused concern to readers of the Psalms since earliest times. This dissertation approaches such prayers in their context within the Psalter as a book, paying attention to the shape and structure of the whole Psalter, and asks whether such an approach can shed light on a close reading of prayers for retribution.
Pauline Language and the Pastoral Epistles 
Jermo van Nes (Evangelische Theologische Faculteit)
After a short introduction explaining the highly disputed status of the Pastoral Epistles (PE or Pastorals) in New Testament studies, Part I ('The Linguistic Problem of the Pastoral Epistles') serves as a history of research on the so-called linguistic problem of the PE. Tracing its roots, Chapter 1 ('Origins of the Problem: Founding Figures') discusses some of the key figures in the emerging debate over the peculiar language of the PE in relation to the question of their authorship.
Paul's Use of Jewish Traditions
Stefan Bosman (University of Aberdeen)
Despite the common practice of appealing to Jewish texts to inform a historic reading of passages in the Pauline Hauptbriefe, close in-depth tradition-historical studies have been limited. Furthermore, even among these tradition-historical studies, one finds a great diversity of approaches. Differences of opinion exist in terms of: (1) whether post-Pauline Jewish texts should even be considered as instructive; (2) what constitutes an entity that may be compared, e.g. mere traditions or initially only whole documents; and (3) when one can speak of a tradition having influenced a particular text.


Articles in TynBul 68.2 (Nov. 2017)

The Challenge of the Canaanites
William Ford (Belfast Bible College)
The negative biblical portrayal of the Canaanites appears to contrast sharply with the wider portrayal of YHWH's relationship with humanity and with Israel in particular, raising a challenge for reading these parts of the Bible as Scripture. This article considers this portrayal by drawing together key biblical references to the Canaanites into two sections: Canaanites as a whole, and as individuals. Four potential images are evaluated as possible summaries of the biblical portrayal of the Canaanites: sinners, danger, warning, and challenge, with the last being the most appropriate. The Canaanites' proximity to Israel, both geographic and moral, raises both a negative and positive challenge. Israelites can become Canaanites and vice versa, depending on their response to YHWH.
Form and Experience Dwelling in Unity: A Cognitive Reading of the Metaphors of Psalm 133
Wen-Pin Leow (University of Aberdeen)
This article uses the cognitive approach to analyse the metaphors of Psalm 133 while concurrently using a study of the remaining Psalms of Ascents to understand the underlying world-view that Psalm 133's metaphors are based on. Such an approach reveals that the subjects of the metaphors of Psalm 133 are connected at a deeper conceptual level. This conceptual relationship allows the psalmist to both describe the blessings of brotherly unity and to provide a literary parallel of the experience of those blessings through the psalm's form.
Diagnosing Religious Experience in Romans 8
Mark Wreford (University of Nottingham)
In this article, I consider Paul's use of adoption language in Romans 8 and argue that religious experience played an important role in its development. By looking closely at what Paul says about adoption and life in the Spirit, I try to identify what kind of experience this language might be articulating. Further, I suggest that it is necessary to consider how biblical scholars can best ensure they take account of religious experience when performing exegesis, offering a heuristic definition of religious experience which moves beyond the language of the NT itself, but is not conceptually anachronistic, to address a lack in the literature.
The Meaning of Cheirographon in Colossians 2:14 Revisited
Kyu Seop Kim (Chongshin University)
In this article we explore the uses of cheirographon in ancient papyri and ostraca and conclude that cheirographon does not refer to a debt certificate, contrary to scholars' consensus (except for Peter Arzt-Grabner). Instead, cheirographon was used to express various handwritten declarations including receipts, loans, contracts, and records of oath in ancient Greek papyri. In particular, cheirographon and its cognate words are used in the formula of declaration and with the expression of oath in Colossians 2:14 can be interpreted in this context. Declaration or oath on the observance of religious regulations was significant in ancient paganism and Judaism. Thus, cheirographon tois dogmasin in Colossians 2:14 can be read as the handwritten document which contains the declaration or oath with regard to the observance of religious regulation.
1 Timothy 2:5-6 as a Christological Reworking of the Shema
Martin Feltham (Macquarie University)
This article draws upon Richard B. Hays's observations regarding the way in which an 'allusive echo' can signal a broad intertextual interplay with a precursor text. I argue that the affirmation in 1 Timothy 2:5 that 'there is one God' is an 'allusive echo' of the Shema which points the attentive reader to an extended and carefully crafted intertextual interplay with the Shema and its Deuteronomic setting. I trace the way that 1 Timothy 2:5-6 reworks the Shema in the light of the story of Jesus Christ to affect the christologically driven opening up of God's people to all nation.
Reassessing Jude's Use of Enochic Traditions (with Notes on their Later Reception History)
Peter J. Gentry (Southern Baptist Theological Seminary);  Andrew M. Fountain (Toronto)
A particular reference in the book of Jude to Enoch is commonly claimed to indicate canonical status for 1 Enoch. The origins and textual transmission of the Enochic traditions are described and reassessed for non-specialists and correlated with claims for inspiration made before, during, and after the period of Second Temple Judaism. The function of Jude's use of Enoch is interpreted within the literary structure of his work and the context of the NT, with implications for the later history of Christianity and Islam
Knowing the Divine and Divine Knowledge in Greco-Roman Religion
Eckhard J. Schnabel (Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary)
In his 2007 Tyndale Biblical Theology lecture, Brian Rosner has shown that the notion of being known by God is an important, albeit neglected, theme in the Old and New Testament. He explored the three relation notions of belonging to God, being loved or chosen by God, and being a child or son of God. After a concise survey of relevant biblical data in the Old and New Testament, he described the value of 'being known by God' in terms of warning, humility, comfort, and security. The following paper explores Greek and Roman religious texts with a view to establishing whether the notion of 'being known by God' surfaces in the context in which the early Christian movement engaged in missionary work, seeking to win polytheists for faith in the one true God and in Jesus Messiah. New Testament scholars do not seem to have explored the subject of the Greek and Roman gods 'knowing' human beings. Similar to Rosner's biblical theological essay, which surveyed texts without in-depth discussion of exegetical details and historical context, the following essay is wide-ranging, considering primary texts written over a large span of time, from Homer's epics (which continued to be read in the first century), the Homeric Hymns, Xenophanes' fragments, Callimachus' Hymn to Demeter, Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus, Hesiod's Theogony, Cicero's De natura deorum, and Plutarch's religious texts to the Greek Hymns in the Furley/Bremer collection and the Lydian confession inscriptions.
Dissertation Summaries
Discourse Markers in the Septuagint and Early Koine Greek with Special Reference to the Twelve
Christopher James Fresch (Bible College of South Australia)
Discourse markers (e.g. de, alla) comprise a functional category. They narrow or explicate discourse relations, instructing the reader on how to process the discourse and build a mental representation of it. In so doing, they aid the reader in the comprehension task, reducing cognitive effort and facilitating successful communication. Unfortunately, these considerations rarely feature in discussions on Greek discourse markers. Instead, their functions are often conflated with the semantics of their surrounding contexts of use and with the functions of their translational glosses. This often results in less precision in one's comprehension of the flow and structure of the discourse.

A Critical Examination of the Coherence-Based Genealogical Method in the Catholic Epistles
Peter J. Gurry (Phoenix Seminary)
The present research provides the first sustained study of the Coherence-Based Genealogical Method (CBGM), a computerised tool developed by Gerd Mink which has become an 'essential tool' to the editors of the most widely used critical editions of the Greek New Testament (NA28/UBS5). Its main use has been on the Editio Critica Maior (ECM) for the Catholic Epistles, which now forms the basis of the NA and UBS editions. The ECM volume on Acts was published in 2017 and plans are underway to apply the CBGM to the entire New Testament. However, because it was designed to address the problems of textual contamination and coincidental agreement, the CBGM has significance far beyond the confines of biblical studies. The overarching purpose of the method is to improve our understanding of the text's history and to help reconstruct the text's starting point, or the 'initial text'. Both of these goals are subjected to close scrutiny in this thesis.