David Instone Brewer
God is described in the Old Testament as married to Israel and Judah, and in the New Testament the church is described as the Bride of Christ. The marriage to Israel ended in divorce and the marriage to Judah suffered a period of separation. Paul suggests that this marriage ended when Christ died, in order that Christ would be free to marry the Church with a better marriage covenant. These marriage covenants are detailed by several authors in the Old and New Testaments. These several accounts are consistent with each other and demonstrate that God subjects himself to his own law in the matter of marriage and divorce.
MARK 16:1-8: THE EMPTY TOMB OF A HERO?
Peter G. Bolt
Hamilton (using Bickermann) has suggested that in antiquity a Hero was proven to be such by means of an empty grave. This view, however, needs to be re-evaluated in the light of the 'empty tombs' associated with Heroes and the 'tombs' associated with some of those reputed to have been translated. This evidence is compared to Mark's portrayal of Jesus' empty tomb to show that it is neither the empty tomb of a Hero, nor of one who has been translated (as has been contended), but of one who has been raised from the dead.
GOD AND HIS PEOPLE IN THE NATIONS' HISTORY: A CONTEXTUALISED READING OF AMOS 1-2
M. Daniel Carroll R.
The Oracles against the Nations in Amos 1 and 2 give important insights into the nature of God's involvement in human history and the place of God's people in it. This essay draws on them in order to evaluate Liberation Theology's claim that Yahweh acts in history for the liberation of the oppressed. This theological conviction has gone hand-in-hand with certain hermeneutical commitments as to how the biblical text should be read. Two liberationists, Gustavo Gutiérrez and J. Severino Croatto are cited in order to raise the key issues for discussion, and then some alternative thoughts on hermeneutical and biblical method are proposed. A literary reading of Amos 1 and 2 suggests that this text can provide insights for a new understanding of God in history that might illuminate the Latin American situation more adequately than the liberation paradigm.
ON INTRODUCING GODS TO ATHENS: AN ALTERNATIVE READING OF ACTS 17:18-20
Bruce W. Winter
Acts 17:18 records that some Athenians perceived Paul to be a 'herald of strange gods' because of his evangelistic activity in the Agora. This essay examines the conventions surrounding a "herald's" official introduction of new deities into the Athenian Pantheon, throwing further light on Paul's Areopagus address and suggesting an alternative translation of Acts 17:19-20.
AMOS 7:14: A CASE OF SUBTLE IRONY
Amos 7:14 is a key verse for the understanding of Israelite prophecy. Among the unresolved issues relating to this verse is the question whether the nominal clauses should be translated with a present or a past tense. Neither of these alternatives seems to have proved convincing, and therefore we should raise the more fundamental questions as to how the prophet is using language. It is argued that his statement only becomes intelligible when we acknowledge that he is using irony. Amos perceived an ideological gap between his grand vision of YHWH's reign and the reality of his people's situation, and was able to bridge this gap through his use of irony.
GENEALOGICAL ANNOTATION IN GENESIS AS BACKGROUND FOR THE MATTHEAN GENEALOGY OF JESUS
The Matthean genealogy can helpfully be classified as an annotated genealogy, a type of genealogy which is notable in Genesis. Annotation and other forms of breach of standard patterns in the Genesis genealogies function particularly to set genealogies into their wider narrative context and to ensure that the genealogies function as compressed tellings of the history that stands behind them. It is likely that Matthew learned his craft for the creation of an annotated genealogy from study of the genealogical material in Genesis.
DIVINE KNOWLEDGE: COMPARISONS AND CONTRASTS WITH HUMAN KNOWLEDGE
Can we understand divine knowledge by analogy with human knowledge? This essay approaches the question by examining two forms of human knowledge: knowledge by creation and by understanding of classes of things. It is suggested that two other forms of human knowledge, memory and inference, may be less helpful as analogies for divine knowledge: if God knows future choices of free agents, this entails knowledge by experience. The essay examines the implications of divine knowledge of the future for human freedom and discusses the question of 'middle knowledge' of non-actual free choices. Certain problems raised by knowledge of temporal events suggest (but do not entail) that God is timeless.
GENESIS 4:17-24: A CASE-STUDY IN EISEGESIS
Maarten J. Paul
This article summarises both ancient and modern interpretations of Genesis 4:17-24, paying particular attention to the relatively unknown Jewish exegesis of this pericope. Usually there is a relation between the social and cultural position of the exegete and his positive or negative view of the technical achievements of Cain and his posterity. After a long period of negative interpretation, Calvin is the first to establish another outlook. In this century the discussion between J. Gabriel and C. Westermann reveals many motifs.
'FATHER' IMAGERY IN 2 CORINTHIANS 1-9 AND JEWISH PATERNAL TRADITION
Anthony A. Myrick
The metaphor of 'father' played a significant role in the pastoral practice of Paul. There is evidence that a major line of Paul's use of paternal imagery can be reliably traced back into the Old Testament and early Jewish tradition, namely the correction of his converts in 2 Corinthians 1-9. This finding suggests that Paul appears to owe much more to his ancient Jewish environment for his use of the paternal metaphor than has often been assumed, and sheds light on the nature and importance of Paul's fatherly correction in his pastoral care of the Corinthian community.
FAITHLESS ISRAEL, FAITHFUL YAHWEH IN DEUTERONOMY
Paul A. Barker
The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the perception of Deuteronomy regarding Israel's ability to keep the covenant requirements. Often Deuteronomy is regarded as an idealistic book, holding out the possibility of utopia in an Edenic land. Yet the hope of Deuteronomy is tempered by an acknowledgement of Israel's propensity to fail. This contributes to a pessimistic expectation for the future which lies in some tension with the book's optimism. It is the contention of this thesis that all optimism in Deuteronomy is grounded in the faithfulness of Yahweh to the Abrahamic promises and that, with regard to Israel, there is only a pessimism about the future. Nonetheless, these two strands are not in fundamental opposition to each other, as diachronic and redaction critics frequently imply to be the case. This thesis, which deals with the book synchronically, argues for the theological integrity of these points of view within Deuteronomy.
A NEW METHOD FOR RECONSTRUCTING BIBLICAL SCROLLS
Edward D. Herbert
The Qumran biblical scrolls are of crucial importance for developing our understanding of the textual diversity that existed around the turn of the era, and for their text-critical contributions. Biblical scholars have generally depended primarily upon common sense and general scholarly judgement in reconstructing such scrolls. Chapter 1 advances a range of scientifically-based tools for reconstructing biblical scrolls, which will be summarised below under six headings. In the remainder of the thesis, these tools are applied to the reconstruction of the 4QSama fragments of 2 Samuel.
THE RECEPTION OF THE THEOLOGY OF KARL BARTH IN SCOTLAND
John L. McPake
This thesis seeks to challenge the account of the reception of Karl Barth's theology within Scotland as offered by the leading Scottish theologian Thomas Forsyth Torrance (1913-). Equally, and consonant with that intention, it examines the nature of Hugh Ross Mackintosh's (1870-1936) response to Barth's theology (both Mackintosh and Barth having been teachers of Torrance). Torrance has championed Barth within the English-speaking world as the theologian par excellence, and presented his own thought as standing in self-conscious fidelity to that of Barth. Therefore, his account of the reception is of crucial significance.
A HISTORY OF RESEARCH ON CODEX BEZÆ Introduction
Kenneth E. Panten
Considering the amount of material written on Codex Bezæ down through the centuries, a detailed history of research into the codex has long been overdue. Such a history is important not only to give future researchers an understanding of what has gone on before, but also to facilitate an understanding of the development of ideas and their outcome. As Codex Bezæ is the principal witness of the so-called Western text, much of what has been written focuses on its text. From the end of the last century, however, there has been a growing awareness among scholars of the need to give the other details contained within the codex far more attention than hitherto.
THE NATURE OF FAITH IN ISAIAH OF JERUSALEM
This dissertation explores two questions related to the theme of faith and trust in Yahweh. First, what did Isaiah expect faith to entail? Was faith understood negatively in terms of a rejection of all human resources, be they alliances with foreign nations or one's own defence preparations? Or was the faith he proclaimed a positive call for fortitude and courage in the face of battle? Second, did Isaiah's faith consist of an unswerving belief in Jerusalem's absolute and unconditional inviolability? Or did his faith envisage the possibility of Jerusalem's destruction?