Articles in TynBul 53.2 (Nov.2002)

Where Was Ancient Zion?
Peter J. LEITHART (New St. Andrews College, Moscow, Idaho)


It is commonly assumed that 'Zion' refers to the temple mount or to the city of Jerusalem as a whole. By examining texts in Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, the article demonstrates that 'Zion' in the historical books of the OT always refers to a specific area of Jerusalem, namely, the fortress that David conquered and named the 'City of David'. This shows a continuity of usage across several centuries, and raises the possibility that the Psalms and prophets sometimes use 'Zion' to refer to the Davidic city and its institutions. The article ends with a brief examination of some of these texts, and argues that the specifically Davidic understanding of 'Zion' offers fresh insight into the meaning of these passages.

How May We Speak of God? A Reconsideration of the Nature of Biblical Theology
R. W. L. MOBERLY (University of Durham)


If theological interpretation of Scripture is to be renewed, it is necessary initially to acknowledge the strength of objections to theological interpretation in the 19th century when the modern paradigm of historical criticism was established; Pusey's messianic interpretation of Haggai 2:7 serves as a case study. Late 20th century work in hermeneutics changes the frame of reference within which the task should be conceived, though its potential has not yet been fully utilized by biblical scholars; Preuss's discussion of revelation in his Old Testament Theology serves as a case study. Finally, the divine self-revelation in Exodus 34:6–7 is seen to provide rules for, and constraints upon, truthful speech about God; and if the biblical text itself is to be understood as revelatory then the work of the interpreter needs ultimately to be understood as an act of prayer.

Passover and Last Supper
Robin ROUTLEDGE (Herringthorpe, Rotherham)


The Synoptic Gospels present the Last Supper as a Passover meal. Whether this coincided with the actual Passover or, as some suggest, was held a day early, it was viewed by the participants as a Passover meal, and the words and actions of Jesus, including the institution of the Lord's Supper, would have been understood within that context. In order to better appreciate the significance of what happened at the Last Supper, this article looks at the form that the Passover celebration is likely to have taken at the time of Jesus, and notes links with the meal Jesus shared with his disciples.

The Herodians: A Case of Disputed Identity. A Review Article
David J. BRYAN (St Andrew's Church, Haughton-le-Skerne, Darlington)


This paper discusses, in two parts, the 'self-designations' for their readers which were used by the authors of the Pastoral Epistles (here in part one), the Johannine Letters and Revelation (to follow in part two). Different ways in which self-designations might relate to terms coined by outsiders are considered in the introduction. It is argued that the term 'Christian' was an 'outsider-coined' term, which does not seem to have been regularly used for the purposes of self-designation in the literature considered here. The key terms used for self-designation in the Pastoral Epistles are 'brother and sister' and 'the believers', which, it is argued here, are used both by the author and the readers. Reasons why these particular self-designations were used are offered. Comparative conclusions will follow the investigation of self-designation in the Johannine Letters and Revelation in Part Two.

What Shall We Call Each Other? Part One: The Issue of Self-designation in the Pastoral Epistles
Paul TREBILCO (University of Otago, New Zealand)


The enigmatic command in Ephesians 5:18, 'be filled by the Spirit', is often understood in terms of the empowerment of individual believers for discipleship and ministry. Such an interpretation leads to difficulties in relating the command to the five participles which follow, and to the argument of the epistle as a whole. Reading the command as directed to the community as a corporate body, and the five participles which follow as participles of means, instead of result, solves a number of problems normally associated with this passage.

Being the Fullness of God in Christ by the Spirit: Ephesians 5:18 in Its Epistolary Setting
Timothy G. GOMBIS (University of St Andrews)


James 1:9–11 encourages the poor and warns the rich about their perceived positions. Despite the apparent simplicity of the teaching, scholars have questioned the identity of the rich person, the nature of the boasting, and the relationship that this teaching has to the other teachings within James 1. Hearing a scriptural echo from Jeremiah 9:23–24 [LXX 9:22-23] within James 1:9–11 can contribute to this discussion. When the context of Jeremiah 9:23–24 and its early interpretations within Jewish literature are heard, they can help identify the rich person in James 1:9–11 as a Christian believer, specify the boasting as a heroic boast, and provide connections with this teaching and others within James 1.

Of Rags and Riches: The Benefits of Hearing Jeremiah 9:23-24 Within James 1:9-11
H. H. Drake WILLIAMS, III (Biblical Theological Seminary, Pennsylvania)


David Bebbington has published a number of influential works arguing that Evangelicalism was created by the Enlightenment. He claims that the new and distinctively Evangelical activism of the 1730s was only possible because of a novel doctrine of assurance. This doctrine was in turn born of the dependence of John Wesley and Jonathan Edwards on Enlightenment epistemology. The following article questions this claim and thus seeks to re-open the case for the identity of Evangelicalism with the Reformation and Puritanism.

Was Evangelicalism Created by the Enlightenment?
Garry J. WILLIAMS (Oak Hill College, London)

Dissertation Summaries

Acts 17:16-34. An Apologetic Model Then and Now?
Lars DAHLE (Kristiansand, Norway)

First paragraph:

Apologetics has traditionally been described as the rational justification of Christian truth claims over against relevant questions, objections and alternatives. Presupposing such an understanding of apologetics and the need to investigate biblical apologetic foundations, this thesis explores the hypothesis that Acts 17:16–34 is to be seen as an apologetic model 'then' and 'now'. This New Testament passage has not previously been fully developed as a biblical paradigm for apologetics, neither exegetically nor in terms of contemporary apologetics.

The New Testament Moses in the Context of Ancient Judaism
John D. LIERMAN (Corpus Christi College, Cambridge)

First paragraph:

This study is an assessment of how the New Testament, set within the context of ancient Judaism, characterizes the functions of Moses in relation to Israel and the Jewish people. Although the study focuses primarily on NT texts, other ancient writings and historical material are consulted so as to situate the NT Moses in the larger milieu of Jewish thought.

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