Articles in TynBul 64.2 (Nov 2013)

These Are the Days of the Prophets: A Literary Analysis of Ezra 1–6
Christopher R. Lortie (Saskatoon, Canada)

This study outlines a plot structure for Ezra 1–6 based upon the ('lh) imperative and (bnh) imperative given in the decree by Cyrus (Ezra 1:2-4) and argues that they provide a clear framework for the narrative. The Judaean people are able to accomplish the ('lh) imperative without conflict, but the (bnh) imperative is not completed as easily. The temple rebuilding project reaches a standstill in Ezra 4:24. At this point the prophets Haggai and Zechariah intervene and become the catalyst for the resolution of the (bnh) imperative and the narrative as a whole (5:1; 6:14). The narrative is structured to demonstrate that Yhwh is the one who enables the temple rebuilding project to succeed through the action of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah over against the Persian kings.

The Early Messianic 'Afterlife' of the Tree Metaphor in Ezekiel 17:22-24
William R. Osborne (College of the Ozarks)

This article discusses the royal associations of tree imagery in the ancient Near East before examining four early messianic interpretations of the tree symbolism in Ezekiel 17:22-24, namely those of 4QEzekiela, the Septuagint, Targum Ezekiel, and The Shepherd of Hermas.

Undercurrents in Jonah
James Robson (Wycliffe Hall, Oxford)

On the surface, the book of Jonah is marked by a certain literary simplicity and apparent artlessness. This is evident in at least three ways: its style, with few adjectives, action-oriented narrative, repetition of words and phrases, sound-plays and personifications; its plot, with extreme scenarios and a binary view of the world; its structure, with significant substantial correspondence. Yet it is often in the very places of apparent artlessness that there are hidden depths. A survey of these undercurrents suggests that the book of Jonah is best understood as an engaging exploration of how credal confessions relate to the complexities of lived experience.

The Parable of the Prodigal Father: An Interpretative Key to the Third Gospel (Luke 15:11-32)
Trevor J. Burke (Moody Bible Institute, Chicago)

Agreement on a title for the parable in Luke 15:11-32 has proved problematic for interpreters: is this primarily a story about the 'son' or 'sons' or a 'family'? While such descriptions are viable, they are insufficient and the view taken in this essay, along with that of an increasing number of scholars­not discounting the role of the two sons­is to approach the story from a paternal perspective. Moreover, this parable is about a 'prodigal father' for his extravagant generosity and liberality is highly unusual and unexpected. Such conduct, however, is no less a part of the evangelist's wider agenda of 'prodigality' in the third Gospel, where the same munificence and largesse are characteristics consonant with those who belong in the kingdom of God. It is concluded that if the father is representative of God in his reckless beneficence then another legitimate designation for this narrative should be 'The Parable of the Prodigal Father'

Gender Versus Marital Concerns: Does 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 Address the Issues of Male/Female or Husband/Wife? 
Preston T. Massey (Indiana Wesleyan University)

This study proposes an alternative for interpreting the background to 1 Corinthians 11–14. The investigation will focus on the following three issues: 1) the issue of married women versus any woman; 2) the matter of a married woman's talking in a public setting; and 3) the nature of the church as the family of God meeting in a house for public worship. The combination of these factors will lead to the conclusion that Paul is addressing marital issues.

'The Root' in Paul's Olive Tree Metaphor (Romans 11:16-24)
Svetlana Khobnya (Nazarene Theological College, Manchester)

In Romans 11:16-24 Paul addresses the subject of the Jewish and Gentile inclusion in the people of God using the illustration of the olive tree. How this description fits Paul's argument in Romans or what precisely Paul communicates by this comparison remains unclear. This essay suggests that Paul's awareness of living in the time when scripture is being fulfilled in Christ determines how we should read the olive tree metaphor. It proposes that the olive tree and the whole process of its rejuvenation pictures the restoration of Israel and the addition of the Gentiles into God's people on the basis of the fulfilment of God's promises in Christ, the very root of the tree. In this light the olive tree metaphor becomes lucid and fits Paul's overall discussion in Romans.

The Adam-Christ Typology in Paul and Its Development in the Early Church Fathers
John VanMaaren (McMaster University)

This article examines the development of the Adam-Christ typology in the early church. It begins by outlining the characteristics of typology and considering Paul's use of the Adam-Christ typology. It then looks at the Adam-Christ typology in Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Origen, Methodius, Augustine and Cyril of Alexandria. Each of these is compared with Paul. For Paul, it is Christ's death and resurrection that correspond to Adam's sin. The church fathers expand Paul's typology and these expansions eventually come to overshadow the main point of correspondence for Paul, Christ's death and resurrection.

Praying to the Holy Spirit in Early Christianity
Boris Paschke (Evangelische Theologische Faculteit Leuven,  Research Foundation Flanders)

This article studies praying to the Holy Spirit in early Christianity of the first three centuries AD. The relevant primary sources are presented and interpreted. While the New Testament remains silent on the topic, some early Christian texts from the Second and Third Centuries AD (i.e. writings of Tertullian and Origen as well as the Acts of John and Acts of Thomas) testify that the idea and practice of addressing the Holy Spirit in prayer (either alone or together with Jesus Christ) existed in early Christianity. However, the paucity of express early Christian quotations of or references to prayers to the Holy Spirit suggests that praying to the Holy Spirit was not widespread but rather remained an exception in early Christianity.

Dissertation Summaries:         

Responding to a Puzzled Scribe: The Barberini Version of Habakkuk 3 Analysed in the Light of the Other Greek Versions
Joshua Harper (Houston, Texas)

This anonymous version of Habakkuk 3 cannot be identified with any of the other known Greek versions of Habakkuk or the Twelve Prophets. It is only found in six Septuagint manuscripts, and has come to be known as the Barberini version of Habakkuk 3 after one of the best witnesses, which was formerly in the library of the Barberini family in Rome. The goal of my thesis is to describe the Barberini version and the translator responsible for it­to give the who, what, where, when, why, and how of its creation in so far as this can be determined by comparing the Barberini Greek version with the other Greek and Hebrew versions of the chapter.

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